Guest Post: Reserves or no reserves, that is the question, by Dr. Karim Abadir

Honored to host a post by Dr. Karim Abadir, Professor of Financial Econometrics at Imperial College London. You can follow him on twitter @kmabadir  His extended bio is enclosed at the end of the post.
Reserves or no reserves, that is the question
Egypt has not officially reported its reserves position to the IMF since December 2012. Now you may ask what’s behind this delay. I suggest you read the details in the last published report on  http://www.imf.org/external/np/sta/ir/IRProcessWeb/data/egy/eng/curegy.htm and you’ll understand why. Egyptian total reserves were declared to be $13.6bn in January 2013 which, together with this link, means that net reserves are now in negative territory.
This zero-reserves day has been delayed by countries depositing monies to embellish our total headline figure (nobody queried thenet figure). Now we’ve hit zero. It’s not a forecast but something that’s already happened. The proof is in the link to the IMF webpage on Egypt, and Egypt has not sent the updated info since December 2012, presumably for fear of being exposed. Our short-term liabilities are listed in Sections II and III of the aforementioned IMF webpage, and they add up to more than our total reserves today. It means that we’ve started spending the deposits that should be returned soon to foreign governments. I’m not even counting the huge debts of Egypt’s Petroleum Company in the figure to deduct, nor am I making allowance for illiquid assets like gold that will have to be dumped in the market and sold at below their current value to pay for our debts. Not only is Egypt bankrupt, but it has also broken international law. The depositors have got us by the balls. One main difference between a deposit and a loan is that the former can be recalled. If there is no good reason for doing so, the depositor loses the interest due. Otherwise, compensation may even be due to the depositor, especially if it turns out that their money cannot be returned. Now that makes you wonder which assets is Egypt going to give to these countries in compensation? Let us not forget how debts to the British and the French led to Khedive Ismail relinquishing control of the Suez Canal.
But here’s another worrying logical conclusion. If our government broke the law and spent the deposits of foreign governments, would it not do the lesser evil of taking local deposits of hard currencies? In case you think this is science fiction, it is not. Countries in better economic positions than Egypt have had to resort to this. In 2001, Argentina did just that to face its crisis: foreign-currency deposits were forced exchanged into Pesos at an artificial exchange rate determined by the government. The question is, are your savings safe?
Bio: Dr. Karim Maher Abadir is Professor of Financial Econometrics at Imperial College London since 2005, where he was in charge of recruiting from 2006 then Group Head from 2007 to 2008 for Finance and Accounting academics. He holds a DPhil from Oxford University. His MA and BA are from the American University in Cairo. He attended school at the Collège de la Sainte Famille (Jésuites) in Cairo. He has also taught at the American University in Cairo, University of Oxford, University of Exeter, and the University of York where he held a joint Chair between the departments of Mathematics and Economics from 1996 to 2005 and was the Head of the Statistics Group. He is credited with having solved in his DPhil a major long-standing problem in Mathematical Statistics and Time Series that was open since the 1950’s, and with having predicted the timing of the recent recession and of the recovery a year before each happened. He was a Founding Editor of the Royal Economic Society’s Econometrics Journal for 10 years and has been Associate Editor of many journals. [Further details are in various editions of Who’s Who in the World, Dictionary of International Biography, Cambridge Blue Book.]

Dr. Abadir is a founding member of the liberal party “Al Masreyeen El Ahrrar” (translates as Free/Liberal Egyptians) and member of the Political Office that heads it. He drafted its economic program in April 2011 (prior to its launch) and has been the Chair of its Economics Committee since September 2011, and Chair of the Data Analysis and Information Committee.


“أخوية بعض المسلمين” – رد شخصي على سؤال “لماذا تكرهوننا”

ناس كتير ينتقدون موقفي المتصلب ضد الإخوان. كثير منهم أكاديمين و شايفين إني غير موضوعي في موقفي، لكن أنا عندي أسباب واضحه و صريحه

“أساس موقفي المتشدد ضد الجماعة مش الخوف من “المشروع الإسلامي” ولا “أسلمة الدولة” ولا الخوف على “الهوية المصرية

خوفي و موقفي ضد الجماعة نابع من عدائي الممنهج لكل ما هو تنظيم سري أو تنظيم معروف لكن يتصف بالسرية و في نفس الوقت يتطلع للسلطة

أو ثقافة الأخوية و نوادي رجال. و تكون معروفة لكن طقوسها سريه “Fraternity” كما يعلم بعضكم أن في أجواء الحرم الجمعي الأمريكي تهيمن ثقافة ال

و أيضا كما يعلم بعضكم، أنا درست في أمريكا. أثناء دراستي كنت احارب تنظيمات نوادي الرجال مع مجموعة من الطلاب بكل الوسائل المتاحة

 طبعا كنا نحاربهم على مستوى الحرم الجامعي بتعنا مش مستوي الدولة، بس للحق إحنا بهدلناهم أوي عندنا

المهم، طب ليه كنا بنحاربهم؟ علشان المنظمات ديه كانت بتنشر أفكار فاسده: محاباة الأقارب، الخضوع لقيادات غير مطلعه فقط لأنهم أفراد قبلوا الخضوع لمن قبلهم

أيضا نوادي الرجال تستعمل أساليب سفله و حقيره في توثيق ولاء المتقدم لعضويتها، و تطلب ولاء أعمى من أعضائها

للحق، أنا لم أنضم أو أحاول الانضمام لأي أخوية، لكن شهادات العيان كانت أكثر من كافيه لإقناعي بفشل و تدني المنظومة

طب ده إيه علاقته بالإخوان؟! لو أنت مش فاهم علاقة الإخوان بالموضوع يبقى فكك من كل أنا بقوله و ما تضيعش وقتك

بعد أخذ العامل الاجتماعي في الترجمة “The Muslim Fraternity” و برضو للحق، لو عاوزين نترجم إسم الخوان للإنجليزية، الترجمة الصحيحه تكون

و اللاتيني منبع أساسي للغه الإنجليزية ، “Frater”  و علشان ماحدش يفتكر إنها شتيمه، مرادف كلمة أخ بلاتينية

.المهم، مشكلتي الأساسية مع الجماعة هي أن تنظيم و إدارة الجماعة و عضويتها و خلايها و تمويلها أسرار

.تاني مشكله مبنيه على المشكله الرئيسية: لماذا لم يتم تقنين وضع جماعة الإخوان المسلمون حتى الآن؟ في رأيي هو خوف من كشف الملفات السرية للجماعة

!و السؤال إلي بيطرح نفسه: هو إحنا شلنا أمن الدولة السري و محاباة الأقارب “المباركيه” و جه بدلا منها نادي رجال الإخوان؟

للعلم بالشيء: محاموا الجماعة بيستندوا لحجة تأسيس الجماعة في عصر الملك، و حين ذاك ما كانش في قانون يجبر الجماعة على تقنين وضعها

 :و أيضا للعلم بالشيء: وقت إنشاء و ازدهار الجماعة كان في نادي رجال آخر إسمه الجماعة الماسونية المصرية و الصورة أهه

http://blogs-static.maktoob.com/wp-content/blogs.dir//102005/files//2010/04/1ii.jpg

إحنا بنتسحل في معارك جانبية كل يوم. المعركة الحقيقية هي تقنين وضع الجماعة. أنا كمواطن محكوم بالإخوان عاوز دفتر حسابات الجماعة

المعارضة لو شغاله صح تبطل تجري على الكلام الفارغ و تضغط و تروج لتقنين وضع الجماعة، و يورونا شطارتهم. لكن للأسف المعارضة مش شغاله صح

أما أنا فساظل أتساءل: الفلوس جايه منين و رايحه فين يا أمور منك له؟ و عندك كام عضو و كام خليه سريه؟

.و عموما أنا مش أقل من سيد قطب في حاجه، أنا برضو متأثر بتجربتي في الغرب، بس في الاتجاه المعاكس. و صباحكم فل


كان يا مكان، في قديم الزمان، كان في كلمة في القاموس مهملة، و الكلمة كان اسمها فلول

كان يا مكان، في قديم الزمان، كان في كلمة في القاموس مهملة، و الكلمة كان اسمها فلول
  …جت ثورة عظيمة عملوها شباب شريفة و أطاحوا بديكتاتور مستبد
و بعد ما اتعزل الطاغية، جت جماعة نواياها غير سوية، حبت تضمن لنفسها التكويش على كل أركان الدولة
و الحق يقال، علشان هم منظمين و فاهمين أن عقول الناس سهل التحكم فيها بتوجيه رسالة إعلامية واحدة، اتعلموا من خبرات الدول الأجنبية في توجيه الديمقراطية
فعملوا خطة جهنمية
اول شئ عملوه هو حصر الفئات الوحيدة الي ممكن تمثل لهم منافسة
ثاني شئ عملوه حصر كل الفئات ديه تحت مظلة كلمة واحدة مبسطة
 ثالث شئ عملوه توجيه إعلامي مكثف لترويج الكلمة ديه
“في علوم الحملات الانتخابية، من معايير مقياس النجاح هي أن حملتك تتوغل المجتمع لدرجة عميقة جداً لدرجة أنها تأخذ هيئة “الدفع الذاتي
و لما الحملة بتوصل للمرحلة ديه، المصدر الرئيسي للحملة ما عليه إلا بذل جهد بسيط جداً لتعديل مسار الحملة على المستوى المجتمعي كله
لأن الحملات من النوع ده موجهة للعقل الباطن و بتصبح جزء من أفكار الضحية
 مثال حقيقي و بعيد عنكم علشان انا عارف أن عندكوا حساسية رهيبة من فكرة أننا منساقين من قبل حملة موجه
 سنة ٢٠٠٤ حزب الجمهوريين في أمريكا صرف ملايين الدولارات لترويج
  “Flip-Flopper” كلمة واحدة على منافسهم چون كاري. كلمة
 تحمل معاني كثيرة زي متأرجح أو متقلب في أراءه أو متحول أو متلون “Flip-Flopper” كلمة
 الحملة كانت بسيطة جداً في فكرتها و ناجحة جداً لدرجة أن لغاية النهار ده اغلب الأمريكان حتي المنتمين للحزب الديمقراطي أما بيسمعوا الكلمة ديه بيفتكروا مرشحهم
من الناحية التقنية حملة كلمة فلول و حملة كلمة “فليب فلوبر” ما يختلفوش شئ عن بعض، و يمتازوا بنفس صفات التوغل المجتمعي عن طريق استهداف العقل الباطن
من أهم الآثار الجانبية المقصودة للحملة واللى بنشهده حاليا هو “الترويج اللا إرادي” للكلمة من قبل فئات مجتمعية غير مستفيدة من الحملة أو في بعض الحالات قد تكون  مضرورة من توغل الحملة واللى بيصب فى النهاية لمصلحة الفئة الى اخترعت المصطلح فى البداية.

Question: Are Jihadi Groups On The Rise In Cairo?!

Yesterday morning the Egyptian news online portal of Al Masry Al Youm (AMAY), and other outlets such as the Washington Post,  reported through various links the killing of a terror suspect in a suburb of Cairo.

The Egypt Independent ran a translation of the piece by AMAY, worth having a look at. In another piece by CBS, an Egyptian official gives some details on what happened:

According to an Egyptian official, Hazem (Terror suspect) was cornered in an apartment and tried to throw a bomb at security

The explosion happened in the area highlighted in red. Al-Hay Al Asher (The 10th District), is a residential suburb east of Cairo.

forces, but the explosive device bounced back. CBS News reports that the man blew himself up during the clash.

Here is my question: Why are terrorist cells feeling comfortable to hide in Cairo with explosives and weapons? Additionally, if there is one cell, which is of high strategic importance to the US, that was uncovered in Cairo, how many other cells that are not so high on the strategic list that are just hanging out in the capital of Egypt?

In other news, AMAY also reported that there are increasing threats from terrorism cells in the Sinai peninsula, threats that involve carrying out attacks utilizing ‘car bombs.’  Regardless, all vigilant observers know that the situation in Sinai is contained to Sinai. However, is Cairo starting to enjoy increased comfort on the part of radicals, who are starting to view it as a safe zone?

I can’t help but think, why are there terror cells within the city limits of Cairo? How did Egypt get to that point where terrorists are in the capital with grenades and weapons?

A more analytical question I am proposing is, if this terror suspect, who was in some way related to the Benghazi American Consulate attack, and the slaying of the American Ambassador and other American Diplomats, was hiding in Cairo with explosives and other weapons, how many other terror cells are in the Greater Cairo areas?

Clearly there has been a shift in how the US is conducting business regarding its global effort to subdue radicals, and part of the shift has been more reliance on special ops, and drones (Barrack “the drone” Obama), and the continuation of cooperation with governments of allied nations.  This was clearly one of those cases of coordinated efforts, and this brings me to my second question.  Were Egyptian authorities pushed by the US administration to make a move on this guy, due to the urgency of the situation, while the Egyptian security forces are taking it easy and not chasing other terror cells in the capital?

It would be a major concern for the world, and more importantly for Egyptians if Egyptian authorities are becoming more easy going with terror-inclined groups and activities.  Unfortunately, I have no evidence to back my concerns, but I do not have evidence to quench them either.


Remembering the Maspero Massacre, October 9, 2011

October 9, 2011
Cairo, Egypt

Midday, October 9, 2011, I sat in my living room knowing that there will be protests at Maspero and knowingly stayed at home. For some reason I decided to stay in and finish some work.  A few days earlier a sit-in staged by Copts in front of the building was dispersed by force.

I recall seeing @Sarahngb’s tweets, she was at Maspero waiting for the Shubra march to make its way to the State TV building.  A bit later I received a call from my friend @RagySoliman, who was asking me what is going on at Maspero, I told him people are starting to gather there and that the march seems to be making its way from Shubra through Bolaq.  As we were on the phone, he was walking from the Nile Towers, where he worked, towards Maspero, when I starting reading tweets on my timeline reporting attacks on the march as it went through the Shubra tunnel. He hadn’t hung up yet, so I told him. Now recalling the phone call, I remember him taking a deep breath and saying I am going anyways. We exchanged well wishes and ended the phone call.

Sketch commemorating the Maspero Massacre, by @Elmoshir (twitter)

Minutes later, I saw @Sarahngb’s tweets reporting that a military unit has stopped her and demanded her ID, and that they have taken off with her passport, then a few minutes later she reported that they returned her passports. Within the same timeframe the march was arriving to Maspero. Thinking that all is well now, I stepped away from my computer to shower, five minutes later however, things were not all well. My twitter timeline was riddled with tweets of agony, fear and reports of horrific beatings by the military. Checking @Sarahngb’s timeline I saw that she reported that clashes have erupted, and that it is getting chaotic. Then there was a tweet from her with a bunch of incoherent letters. I knew something went terribly wrong.

As per the time of the extended Aftershocks (the months that followed the initial 18 days of January 25, 2011 that saw clashes between protesters and security forces) of the revolution, I had a backpack always ready, it contained a surgical medical kit, gloves, gas masks, cameras, extra phone, etc.  Within minutes this bag was on my back and I was in my car driving towards Maspero.

On my way there I was receiving frantic phone calls from friends, family and coworkers, who were asking what was going on.  On that day, the Free Egyptians Party (FEP) leadership, Muslims and Christians, had decided to join the peaceful stand at Maspero.  Effectively I personally knew no less than 10-15 people who were present at State TV building when the clashes erupted.  Two calls stood out though, the first was @Sarahngb returning my calls. She was alive and getting out towards Zamalek, she had ran after a beating she received from the military and was heading to @Sandmonkey’s place.  The second call was from @RagySoliman’s wife.  We had never spoke in person before over the phone, I had met her once in my life with her husband, and she was calling me frantically asking if I knew anything about her husband. After informing her that I had just spoken to him over the phone minutes before the clashes, I promised her I will not leave there before I find him, no matter what.

Blood at Night, Grief by Day | Maspero 9/10 الدماء و الأسى | ماسبيرو by @mosireen

22 minutes after leaving my place I was parked across the street from the Automobile club in downtown Cairo. With my backpack on my back, I was sprinting towards Maspero, through Abd El Monim Riad, my phone kept ringing and I answered the calls I could while panting through the run, until this point, mild smell of tear gas. Then I stopped at a sizable group of protesters under the October 6th Bridge, right across from the Hilton Ramsis, neighboring Maspero.  My phone rang, I recall it was some TV anchor from Al-Arabya and/or Orbit, he was asking me about the conditions at Maspero, and I kept trying to tell him that I am still looking for my friends and that I do not have a clear view of Maspero yet, however the situation is chaotic.  As I was hanging up I realized that I just walked in the cleared space between the protesters and the security forces.  In my frantic rush and being on the phone at the same time, I had wandered off to danger zone, as I pulled my phone off my ear, some trigger happy Central Security Forces soldier fired a tear gas canister at me, which hit my foot and stopped.  The gas overwhelmed me.  That is when @MR_MOST, some random kid who I helped jump off the fence earlier helped me out of the smoke, I recall he kept asking me: “Which news outlet are you with”, he was filming and thought I was a journalist as well.

We had never met before, but we stuck out the rest of the night together filming the clashes that lasted for hours.

After @MR_MOST pulled me back and I could catch my breath, I continued my search for Ragy, for about 30 minutes, when I received a call from a member of FEP, who told me Ragy was hurt, but alive, in a hospital in Mohandeseen, I was informed that @AhmedHassanSaid, who later became a MP of this very district was hurt the worst out of the FEP crew.

By then I was comforted that at least none of the people I knew to be there are dead, but for some reason I could not leave.

Most of the videos I shot were shot from the side of bystanders who were not very happy with the protesters, I did not try to stop what they were saying in fact I wanted to hear more, if you understand Arabic you can hear some of the commentary in the video I am posting for the first time below:

Within the course of the night I realized that I arrived after the initial clash, but the battle, the hate and the rock-throwing between the two sides continued for hours on the bridge and that some protesters were dragged away by opposing civilians with the help of riot police. Television broadcasts showed protesters pelting Central Security trucks with rocks and attempting to drag drivers out from inside. Reality of the matter however is that the CSF and Military Police (MP), along with hateful volunteers and secret police all were getting in on the action, they also threw rocks, they used excessive force, and never at any point were they trying to make the clashes stop.  Even when sit-in protesters from nearby Tahrir square tried to calm the situation down, the security forces side attacked with molotovs and electric tasers.  These are things I have seen with my own eyes.  The sound of tasers going off was echoing in the air.

Some Muslims had joined the protest, the violence took on a sectarian edge as the night continued. “Copts are running this way, they’re dogs, beat them.” Other bystanders argued in favor of the protesters, explaining the church burning.

In the midst of the chaos and dodging the random tear gas canisters and rock throwing that was reaching us over the October 6th bridge, I recall talking to @AbanoubEmad, we both asked if the other was ok, physically.  He comforted me that he was out of the clashes ok, and that now he is at the Coptic Hospital were the bodies of the victims are being held, then he told me the that he shot one of the most horrific videos of his life. This video is below:

For some reason, that call, and many others I was receiving made adamant on staying on site.  An hour or so later, @Sarahngb, @Sandmonkey, @ANassouf, and @ahmedkhairy5 came back for me because I would not leave.

Roughly around 11pm, we retreated to @Sandmonkey’s place in Zamalek. @ANassouf drove us there after we walked on the October 6th bridge over the Nile to his car, which was parked in Zamalek.

Meanwhile, @Cairowire called me as her group was stuck in Zamalek, and they did not know if they can make it back across the Nile. Eventually they made their way to @Sandmonkey’s place and @Cairowire, @jonsnyder and @kwiens helped me edit the video that was uploaded to wired magazine, and @CarterTroy wrote the description of the video remotely.

The @Sandmonkey residence was filled with mixed emotions, maybe two-three interviews going on at any given point about the clashes over cellphones, exhaustion, psychotic laughs of denial, some tears, short breath, the remnants of the tear gas smell, and the scrambling of computers and social media tools. While we were there, it was announced that the Maspero downtown area will have an imposed curfew until the morning.  My initial thought, that I did not verbalize at the moment was “a curfew to clean up the blood and the aftermath of the clashes, that makes sense” moments later I found out that the State TV apparatus was in fact claiming that the “unpatriotic” Copts were attacking the military, and was calling on “Honorable Citizens” to go to Maspero and land a hand to the security forces.  That curfew made more sense then.

Hours later we broke the curfew and saw the burnt cars close to the Coptic Hospital, there was a small gathering in front of the hospital, but we were on October 6th bridge, heading towards Heliopolis. We stopped for minutes, but then carried on.

Two nights later, at the Coptic Hospital in Cairo, there was the procession of the peaceful protesters who were ran over by military vehicles  shot, dragged and beaten to death


Forgotten Heroes of Mohamed Mahmoud Street – تذكير: لمن نسى ما حدث في شارع محمد محمود

The first gallery combines pictures of the mass Friday, November 18, 2011 protests planned and called for mainly by the Muslim Brotherhood and Salafi movements, and the clashes that started on Saturday, November 19, 2011 after all Islamists forces evacuated the square and left behind a very small group of civil protesters.

المجموعة الأولى من الصور تجمع بين صور مليونية يوم الجمعة، ١٨ نوفمبر ٢٠١١، التي دعت إليها  جماعة الاخوان مسلم والحركات السلفية، و صورالاشتباكات التي بدأت يوم السبت ١٩ نوفمبر، ٢٠١١ بعد انسحاب كل قوى الإسلاميين تاركه مجموعة صغيرة جدا من المتظاهرين المدنيين

A protester overcome with tear gas inhalation sits on the curb during clashes with the Egyptian riot police near the interior ministry in downtown Cairo, on November 20, 2011. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)

The second gallery shows pictures of the continued clashes of Mohamed Mahmoud st. as the clashes got more intense on the days of 21,22, and 23 November, 2011.

المجموعة الثانيه من الصور توثق بعض ملامح الاشتباكات في شارع محمد محمود بعد أن زادت حدتها في أيام ٢١، ٢٢ و ٢٣ نوفمبر ٢٠١١

A protester throws a tear gas canister, which was earlier thrown by riot police during clashes along a road which leads to the Interior Ministry, near Tahrir Square in Cairo, on November 22, 2011. Egyptians frustrated with military rule battled police in the streets again on Tuesday as the generals scrambled to cope with the cabinet’s proffered resignation after bloodshed that has jolted plans for Egypt’s first free election in decades. (Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh)

آخر كلام: عربجية الأمن المصري ونعتذر للعربجية

The feeling inside Mohamed Mahmoud St. November 21, 2011 – ما كان يحدث في شارع محمد محمود ليلة نوفمبر ٢١، ٢٠١٢

The walk up to the Mohamed Mahmoud St. Front Lines,

November 22, 2011

 – الصفوف الأولى في شارع محمد محمود نوفمبر ٢٢، ٢٠١٢

 

 أحداث محمد محمود

Mohamed Mahmoud War Drums, November 22, 2011

إزاي- محمد منير- أحداث محمد محمود كاملة


Live Gunfire on Galaa st. – Al-Ahram Newspaper building

At 5pm exacly (Cairo GMT +2), I was driving back from Zaky st, back to Zamalek, on Galaa st. right in front of Al-Ahram newspaper building, which for some reason I initially tweeted that it is Al-Gomhoreya newspaper building, on Ramsis st.

There was clearly a loud commotion in front of the building of Al-Ahram newspaper, hence I parked my car and stopped to see what is going on, at the time there was only Central Security Forces (CSF) present at the scene, and clearly there was an angry mob made out of a very few angry and determined individuals, who swore up and down that they will get the “guy” hiding in the building.

It was hard to figure out the real story, but what was conclusive was that a man was shot by a policeman (أمين شرطه) a man, who is a micro-bus driver, and then took refuge in Al-Ahram building, and the mob wanted to get a hold of him.  Now whether this man was initially in custody, or he committed a traffic violation and refused to comply it is unclear to me.

When I got there, there had already been some clashes between the mob and CFS, and they were going back and forth, with the usual breaks in between.  There was a surreal moment when one of the family/friends of the shot man jumped inside a parked bus, blocking the road and tried to run over CSF troops standing in formation.  He then backed up and the video below shows the tail end of that incident.

As seen in the video 3 military vehicles came in to support CSF and to try to get the policeman hiding within the building safely out.  Meanwhile, a man, who was also there supporting the mob, friend/family member of the shot man, was threatening to throw himself off the 6th of October bridge in protest to the killing of the man, and also because someone “Took his bus”, was not sure of what he was talking about.

After a while, Riot Military Police (RMP) reinforcements came to aid military forces.  Within a matter of minutes, the policeman was taken to safely to one of the armored military vehicles.  The military attempted to leave the location, but the mob, fairly at their angriest point.  One of the family/friends of the shot man, drove one of the buses and blocked the driveway of the military armored vehicles.

In the midst of the chaos a man got into the bus and moved it, and the commanding officer in charge of military units present gave an order, and he went into one of the armored vehicles and the immediately started firing a vast amount of assault rifle rounds into the the air.  It is worthy of noting that Galaa st. has the 6th of October bridge covering it.  While the military was shooting, they started moving their armored vehicles in relatively high speeds to get away from Al-Ahram building.

The mob continued chasing after the military vehicles, and the military continued firing.  I could see the bullets ricochet, of the bottom of the bridge, clear flashes of the rounds hitting the metal.  At that point I got into my car and was trying to make my way out of the chaos, driving in the same direction the military vehicles were making their getaway.  They continued to fire rounds off, in a fairly crowded area.  One woman fell to the ground right in front of my car and people started screaming.  Some asked me to drive her to the hospital, but then family members/companions picked her up and carried her across the street running.


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